Growth and development of a child?

Growth and development of a child?
The basic characteristic of the child's organism is continuous growth and development. Growth in the narrow sense of the word signifies an increase in the height and weight of the child, while the development underlines the maturation of organs and tissues.

Some developmental periods of the child could be divided as follows: the age of the newborn from birth to the end of the fourth week of life; the infant's age from the first to the end of the twelfth month of life a little child from the first to the end of the third year; pre-school child from third year to enrollment in school; a younger school child aged 7-11; an older school child or a puberty age of 11-15 years; youthful age or adolescence from 15 to 22 years.

These periods should not be sharply restricted, because development is a steady process in which one child develops faster and slower. Therefore, there may be misunderstandings if it is considered that all children of the same age must be equally developed.

For the time being, the first adjustment to the new environment outside of the mother's womb is important. Now the child begins to receive new stimuli and adjust the work of his body to the new requirements of the environment. At that time, only basic life functions were fully developed: breathing, blood circulation and temperature. The work of the digestive organs, the liver and the kidneys begins, the work of the glands gradually increases and improves the function of the sensory organs.

There are reflections on sound, light, cold and sudden changes in body position. The movements performed by the newborn serve to satisfy his basic needs of life and therefore turns his head towards the breasts of the mother.

A child is born without congenital emotional reactions and develops them in parallel with the development of the nervous and glandular system. Therefore, those who think that the newborn behaves in a certain way is not entitled because it is "evil or good in nature".

The child is selfish, and all that is experienced is related to the need for food, sleep, warmth and the emptying of urine and stool. When these needs are met, the child is satisfied and well, because he feels comfortable. If it's hungry, drowsy, wet, and if it's cold or it feels a bit painful then it's "evil" and restless as it strives to overcome this discomfort.

At this stage of development, the brain and the nervous system matures, so the child's interest in the environment is getting bigger and the reflexes are more meaningful. Smiling, holding your head and moving your hands into a healthy child is also developing very rapidly. When she reaches 4 months, the child keeps her head firmly upright, laughs at the smile of another person, looks at her handles and pins and plays with them, holds fasting for long and firm and begins to put her in her mouth.

After 7 months he sits well and can only hold a bottle of food. At that time, usually the first teeth begin to burst. At the end of the first year he wants to take everything in his arms, drink from the glass unknowingly and show the desire to feed himself, he starts to walk independently, begins to speak, and a little stops working in diapers. Tumor bodies are, however, still very sensitive and, according to the errors in diet, the child reacts immediately.

In addition to brainwashing, there are feelings or emotions. Such a pronounced dissatisfaction of the baby expresses first the crying, then there is anger in the fourth month, with 5 months showing disgust and with 6 months of fear. If parents or educators know what period of time a child should expect, then in any suspicious case of developmental delay, she will be able to consult a child's doctor in time.


In the second year of life, the growth strength is decreasing. The bones are soft and muscles are not sufficiently developed. The work of glands with internal secretion, which stimulates growth and development, is constantly developing and strengthening. By the middle of the third year, milk teeth are completed. The child is sensitive to changes in the outside temperature and is prone to colds, but it also tolerates heat.

At that time the child is walking, talking more and more correctly, starts eating alone, hanging out and dressing, wet and making a chair in his bowl, and the game is becoming more and more complex. For a more correct development it is very important to encourage the child to cope with various activities.

Because he already understands what is happening around him, he quickly takes on the habit of the environment. He constantly asks questions and just wants to experience many things. His personality awakens and develops defiance, which leads to first conflicts with the environment, negative experiences and disappointments, until finally he does not understand what he can and what not.

Changes in the emotional development of the child are also noticeable. It expresses its feelings and quickly changes them. Love primarily develops towards the people who care for him and play with him, then to his toys and things, and from three years to the other children. He expresses his love by grinding and kissing, and his whole behavior is in line with the love he gives to him. Neglected children direct their love for themselves, i.e. they become more selfish.


The pre-school period is of great importance for the development of the child and his health. At that time, when 0n0 the most stressed influence has an environment that can act positively or negatively on his state of health and behavior.

It is therefore necessary to provide the child with the best possible conditions for his physical and mental development. Proper nutrition, movement and play in the air and the sun, sufficient rest and sleep, good hygienic conditions of the environment, regular family relations and proper education are especially important.

Thus, a child aged 3 to 4 years is characterized by weight gain, especially in the autumn months. Between the age of 5 and 6, the child grows rapidly in height, the body has no more rounded shape, the lower limbs become longer and the child looks smoother.

Because of this, many parents are unnecessarily worried because they think something is wrong with the child's health or nutrition. However, in that period it grows 6-8 cm a year and becomes weighing about 2 kg.

Musculoskeletal apparatus is already more developed, children become more durable and have a great need for playing, jumping, running, climbing and body movements. This physical activity acts as a stimulus for their growth and development and strengthens individual organs, especially the heart, lungs and muscles. In addition, the game and physical movements acquire more experience and skills and achieve the necessary skills and security. The trial system is already much more developed, but it is much more sensitive than adults. Children are also prone to colds in this period.


The growth of the younger school child is somewhat slowed to annually grow about 5-6 cm. It becomes weighing 3 to 3.5 kg per year. The differences between boys and girls are not large yet, although their overall appearance is becoming more and more similar to adults. Children can make more effort if they are not uniform and do not last long. However, the spine still has no strength of the adult, so it is harmful if they are loaded with long standing and sitting without the ability to change the position of the body.

Movements and actions are becoming more and more perfect, and they easily acquire many new skills. Milk teeth begin to fall, and the child gets permanent teeth. In parallel with the rapid physical development, the mental development of the child also takes place. It becomes capable of quickly thinking, better to notice and adjust to the environment.

He still feels a great need to accept him and love him and to recognize his abilities. At the age of the younger school age, special attention must be paid to the influence of the new circumstances under which the child is developing, which is primarily the influence of the school.

Before going to school, the child's play and movement were not limited, while the child is now bound for several hours indoors indoors, which burdens the spine, back musculature and child's intellect, and reduces stay in the fresh air and sun. Due to these new circumstances, poor posture, lack of appetite, tendency towards infections, etc. can occur.


The beginning of puberty is characterized by a sudden increase in the child height (5-7 cm per year) and rapid weight gain (5-6 kg per year). Girls usually do this a bit earlier, i.e. about eleven years of age, and boys a little later, about 12 or 13 years old.

That's why boys seem to be lower and more tender than girls of the same age. Due to the increasingly intense secretion of sex hormones this sudden growth follows the girl's enlargement of the pelvic bones and hips, breast augmentation, the appearance of hairs under the armpits and around the genitals, and about 12. and 13. and the onset of first menstruation.

Boys also gradually appear hairy, not only in the armpit and genital area, but also on the face. Sexuality also grows faster, first polus (nocturnal ejection of seed) and change in voice, so-called. muting.

For this period characteristic is the non-uniform growth and development of the sole organs and parts of the body, such as, for example, faster growth of the limbs than other parts of the body, which gives the children the typical, unimaginable look.

No rarity and stronger fatigue due to accumulation of fatty tissue, increased sebaceous gland (the appearance of babulomas on the face and back, greasy hair) and others. Accelerated growth in height sometimes causes poor body stiffness and distortion of the spine, especially if children are exposed to increased strain, if they do not eat properly or move too little.

The work of the heart, lungs and other organs is subject to change, and it also shows some imbalance. Therefore, the onset of headache, rapid heartbeat and similar disturbances do not have the importance they have in other life periods.

Physical changes in puberty are accompanied by deep psychological changes. Thus, at the beginning of puberty children become stubborn, prone to disobedience and defiance, and easily change their mood. And in the school they become more superficial and non-trivial, underestimate the elderly and are often in conflict with them.

These changes are related to their desire to show everyone that they are grown up, that they are no longer children, as well as the emergence of completely new interests, desires and needs. Then begins to discover the "other gender", the beauty of nature, music and other artistic values.


Adolescence or adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood. Growth in height is slow and gradually ends. Organic systems are fully matured, and body proportions get their final form. Psychological matured depends on the environment in which an individual develops. As the environment is at a higher level of civilization and economic development, the young man is more demanding. More and more prolonged education extends his dependence on the family and his psycho-social maturity.
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